How to Become a Nurse Practitioner in 5 Steps
Explore the career requirements for nurse practitioners. Get the facts about education, salary, licensure requirements and job growth to determine if this is the right career for you. Schools offering Family Nurse Practitioner degrees can also be found in these popular choices.
Career Information at a Glance
A nurse practitioner is a registered nurse who has completed advanced practice training to provide primary and secondary care to patients. The following chart provides an overview about a career as a nurse practitioner.
|Degree Required||Master's degree|
|Required Field of Study||Nursing|
|Job Duties||Examine, evaluate, diagnose and treat patients; order and review diagnostic tests; provide medications, prescriptions and vaccinations; counsel patients on their medical conditions|
|Licensure/Certification||All states require nurse practitioners to be licensed as registered nurses; professional certification as a nurse practitioner is required|
|Job Growth (2012-2022)||34%*|
|Median Salary (2013)||$92,670*|
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
What is a Nurse Practitioner?
Like physicians, nurse practitioners can provide primary and specialty healthcare to patients. This career serves to fill a need where physicians are in short supply. As a nurse practitioner, you examine patients, diagnose health problems, order diagnostic tests, prescribe medications and develop treatment plans. When treating patients, you likely place more emphasis on wellness and disease prevention than would a physician. You also provide patients with referrals to other healthcare professionals as necessary.
Step 1: Earn a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)
Since a master's degree is required to become a nurse practitioner, you first need to earn a bachelor's degree. A BSN program typically takes four years to complete. You may take courses in biology, chemistry, psychology, anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, nutrition, health assessment and nursing. Part of your education includes gaining clinical experience in multiple hospital departments, such as psychiatry, surgery, maternity and pediatrics. You may also be given opportunities to participate in research.
Step 2: Earn a Nursing License
A license is required to work as an RN in the United States. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) administers the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN). Each state board of nursing regulates the eligibility requirements to test for licensure.
Step 3: Gain Experience Working as an RN
Master's degree programs generally require applicants to have completed at least one year of clinical nursing experience prior to admission. The type of experience required can vary based on your specialty interest. For example, if you plan to specialize in acute care, you may be required to have experience working in an intensive care unit. Likewise, if you plan to specialize in pediatrics, you may be required to have experience in pediatric nursing.
Step 4: Earn a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)
While enrolled in an MSN program, you spend time in classrooms as well as clinical environments. You can choose from a number of specialties, including acute care, pediatrics, family practice and geriatrics. You may take courses in writing, physical assessment, pharmacology, pathophysiology and ethics. You also take courses and gain clinical experience in your area of specialization.
Step 5: Consider Earning Board Certification in Your Specialty
After earning your master's degree, you may earn board certification in your specialty. Two organizations that offer board certification for nurse practitioners are the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). Certification is generally valid for a period of five years. Continuing education and retesting are typically required for certification renewal.
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